Putter ABC 

Clubface Balance / Hang

'Hang' is the term used to describe the angle of the putter face when the putter shaft is resting fully balanced on an extended finger. A distinction is made between 'face balanced' and 'toe balanced'. On a face balanced putter, the putter face is 100% horizontal, but on a toe balanced putter it is inclined downwards at the front end. All Caledonia putters can be adapted to the swing arcs of each player using Hosel Insert Technology and the Face Weighting System.

Swing Arc

Putting arcs are divided into four main categories: square to square, inside-square-inside, inside-square-square and square-square-inside. These indicators have a great influence on the hang to be used on the putter. Players with no arc or only a very weak arc usually prefer a face balanced putter, but golfers with a distinctive inside-square-inside swing arc favour a toe hang putter. However, there are no guarantees for these statistically proven figures. To find out which putter face balance really is the right one, digitally supported putter fitting is recommended.


Short Neck

Face Balanced

Long Neck

Off Centre

The hosel has a decisive influence on the hang of the putter face.
The longer the imagined line that points from the end of the shaft to the centre of the club, the less hang is achieved. These geometric properties can be manipulated by shifting the weights in the putter head.

Static and Dynamic Loft.

A distinction is made here between static and dynamic loft. Static loft describes the putter face inclination at rest, whereas dynamic loft defines the inclination at the moment of impact. Dynamic loft is the most important parameter to achieve a perfect ball roll. More on this subject can be found in our 'Grooves or no grooves' analysis.


The lie describes the angle between a putter head positioned parallel to the support surface and the shaft inclination. A perfectly configured lie makes it easier to strike the ball consistently on the sweet spot. An incorrectly configured lie often leads to poorly hit putts.


The clubface rotation describes the opening and
closing angle during the swing. The rotation average
on the professional tours for a 9-foot putt is approximately
11 degrees, whereby the opening angles are added up. The
clubface rotation at the end of the backswing or follow-through
for these players is between 4 and 6 degrees.

Swing Rhythm / Speed

A rhythmic and repeatable putting movement is another parameter for success on the green. Here, the swing is divided into three areas:


The time from the start to the
end of the backswing


The time from the end of the backswing to the moment of impact.


The total time from the start to the moment of impact

The swing rhythm is defined from the ratio of
backswing time to forward swing time up to the actual moment of impact.
This ratio should be 2:1. Accordingly, the forward swing
should be twice as fast as the backswing.

Swing Weight

Most off-the-shelf putters are too long to enable a natural hand / arm position on addressing the putt. If the length of the putter is adapted to the individual playing needs, the original swing weight is also changed. Many putter manufacturers do not bother about this issue, because the production process would often be too comprehensive. Nonetheless, the ratio between the static head weight and the length of the shaft must be balanced in order to be able to generate a repeatable swing movement.

Putter Grip

The weight of the grip also influences the swing weight of the putter. A
heavier grip reduces the swing weight and a
lighter grip increases it. A thicker grip can, however,
reduce wrist movement during the swing. In general, the different
grip sizes are undersize (ladies), standard, midsize and oversize.